Good cutting boards (plastic or preferably non-bamboo wood) will help your edge last.
Plastic boards, while good for the edge of your knife, harbor more bacteria than wood or bamboo boards after normal cleaning. Bamboo and wood boards are about the same in terms of being kind to your knife edge and are better, when new, at keeping bacteria at bay.
Bamboo, after long term use, can start to get "fuzzy," which is thought to trap bacteria -- if/when this happens replace the board.
Stay far away from marble or glass boards -- not only do they dull your knife, bacteria tends to thrive and spread on them.
If you're using restaurant-style sanitation (bleach solution for pre-cleaning), plastic is easiest to care for and longest lasting. If you're washing your cutting board with soap and water (like most of us), wood or bamboo is superior.
(There's also a much rarer fourth option -- natural rubber cutting boards. These are softer than wood, are self healing, and can be resurfaced with fine grit sandpaper.)